Industrial salt, also
known as sodium chloride has a chemical formula NaCl. It is an ionic salt and
exists as white crystalline solid. It is readily soluble in water and slightly
soluble most other liquids and insoluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Sodium chloride has a characteristic taste and can be found as a major
component in edible salt.
conductivity of sodium chloride decreases with increasing temperature and also
decreases with doping. Sodium cations are metallic conductors and when
temperature increases, the thermal populations of higher energy levels in the
molecular orbits are expected to bring about an increase in conductivity.
However, thermal vibrations of the nuclei produce electrical resistance and this
effect is sufficiently enhanced at higher temperature, resulting in a decrease
in conductivity of the metal at higher temperature.
Sodium chloride exists in abundance naturally as
mineral, halite. They can be mined by pumping water into mines to dissolve the
rock salt. The water is then allowed to evaporate such that NaCl recrystallized
and collected for further processing and purification for industrial
consumption. Sodium chloride can also be collected by
evaporating brine from underground salt deposits and seawater. Saturated brine
is then passed through a series of recrystallization ponds where sodium
chloride salt will crystallize out. The crystals are isolated, further purified
using crystallization, processed and standardized for industrial consumption.
Sodium chloride main function in detergent industry
is as inert filler. It is the most commercially effective viscosity increasing
agent to turn powder detergent to fluid. It is especially effective for anionic
detergent in the presence of alkylolamides. It makes up the majority of the
detergent with their primary role to modify and alter the physical properties
of the compound.
Sodium chloride is used for rinsing in textile
processing to separate organic contaminants and help with salt out of dyestuffs
precipitate. Dyes are generally negatively charged and they get absorbed to the
positively charged sodium cations readily. They will form insoluble compounds
and eventually precipitate out, allowing easy removal and isolation. It is also
used to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize them.