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Soda Ash Dense (China Origin)

Soda Ash Dense (China Origin)
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Country Origin : China Appearence : White Powder
CAS No. : 497-19-8 H.S. Code : 2836.20.00
Formula : Na2CO3 Common Names : Soda Ash
IUPAC Name : Sodium Carbonate
Packaging : 840 @ 25 kg PP/PE Bags, 21 MT / 20'FCL
  • Description
  • Application
Brief Overview

 

Soda Ash Dense is the industrial name of anhydrous sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate decahydrate, a colorless, transparent crystalline compound, is commercially known as sal soda or washing soda. Soda Ash is produced synthetically using the Ammonia Soda process (Solvay process) treating sodium chloride with ammonia and carbon dioxide. Trona, a naturally occurring mineral, is used also as a source of sodium carbonate. It is an essential ingredient in many industrial and manufacturing processes, with widely industrial uses, being crucial in the manufacture of flat and container glass and a key ingredient in the production of detergents.

 

Manufacturing Process

Mining

Sodium carbonate occurs in nature as Trona, trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate (Na3HCO3CO3·2H2O). Trona is also mined from some alkaline lakes by dredging. Hot saline springs continuously replenish salt in the lake so that, provided the rate of dredging is no greater than the replenishment rate, the source is fully sustainable.

 

Solvay process

In 1861, the Belgian industrial chemist Ernest Solvay developed a method to convert sodium chloride to sodium carbonate using ammonia. The Solvay process centered around a large hollow tower. At the bottom, calcium carbonate (limestone) was heated to release carbon dioxide:

CaCO3  CaO + CO2

At the top, a concentrated solution of sodium chloride and ammonia entered the tower. As the carbon dioxide bubbled up through it, sodium bicarbonate precipitated:

NaCl + NH3 + CO2 + H2 NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

The sodium bicarbonate was then converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, releasing water and carbon dioxide:

2 NaHCO3  Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Meanwhile, the ammonia was regenerated from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating it with the lime (calcium hydroxide) left over from carbon dioxide generation:

CaO + H2 Ca(OH)2

Ca(OH)2 + 2 NH4Cl  CaCl2 + 2 NH3 + 2 H2O

Because the Solvay process recycles its ammonia, it consumes only brine and limestone, and has calcium chloride as its only waste product. By 1900, 90% of sodium carbonate was produced by the Solvay process.

 

Hou's process

It is developed by Chinese chemist Hou Debang in 1930s. The earlier steam reforming by-product carbon dioxide was pumped through a saturated solution of sodium chloride and ammonia to produce sodium bicarbonate via the following reactions:

NH3 + CO2 + H2 NH4HCO3

NH4HCO3 + NaCl  NH4Cl + NaHCO3

The sodium bicarbonate was collected as a precipitate due to its low solubility and then heated to yield pure sodium carbonate similar to last step of the Solvay process. More sodium chloride is added to the remaining solution of ammonium and sodium chlorides; also more ammonia is pumped at 30-40°C to this solution. The solution temperature is then lowered to below 10°C. Solubility of ammonium chloride is higher than that of sodium chloride at 30°C and lower at 10°C. Due to this temperature dependent solubility difference and the common-ion effect, ammonium chloride is precipitated in a sodium chloride solution.

The Chinese name of Hou's process (联合制碱法) means "Coupled Manufacturing Alkali Method": Hou's process is coupled to the Haber process and offers better atom economy by eliminating the production of calcium chloride since ammonia no longer needs to be regenerated. The by-product ammonium chloride can be sold as a fertilizer.



Detergent Industry

Domestically it is used as a water softener in laundry detergents. Soda ash competes with the ions magnesium and calcium in hard water and prevents them from bonding with the detergent being used. Without using washing soda, additional detergent is needed to soak up the magnesium and calcium ions, called Washing Soda or Sal Soda in the detergent section of stores, it effectively removes oil, grease, and alcohol stains.


Medium dense or lighter grades of soda ash are typically used in detergents. They function as a builder in the formulations of soaps, detergents and other cleaning compounds, maximizing the dirt removal power of wash medium. Soda ash also aids agglomeration, by carrying surfactants and provide the optimal pH for washing agents.


Soda ash is an important component in a large number of formulated domestic products, soaps, scouring powders, soaking and washing powders etc.