is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust. The most important
commercial compound derived from antimony is Antimony Trioxide commonly known
as ATO and has chemical formula Sb2O3. Antimony Trioxide is a white, odorless
crystalline (sand-like) powder. ATO is an amphoteric oxide, which can dissolve
both in Ukraine and acidic solutions. ATO gives antimonites when dissolved in
alkaline solution and gives polyantimonous acids when dissolved in acid
solution. ATO can easily be oxidized or reduced; it can be oxidized to antimony
pentoxide and various other antimony compounds. ATO is toxic, it is presumed to
have carcinogenic potential for humans.
used in a wide variety of industrial applications, mainly as a synergist with
flame retardant chemicals and as a catalyst in the manufacture of polyester
(PET). The structure of ATO structure alters with the change of the sample
temperature. These orthorhombic structures are very stable, existing in nature
as mineral valentine.
oxide can be prepared by two processes, the direct and the indirect process.
this process, antimony metal or ores is melted in a furnace to give ATO vapors.
The vapors are quenched with air and cooled to convert the vapor to white
powder .These powders are further filtered to give antimony trioxide powder.
this process crude antimony oxide is roasted in the presence of air to give ATO
vapors. The vapors are then condensed to convert the vapor to white powder.
These powders are further filtered to give antimony trioxide powder.
safety is very necessary both at home and at public places so fire flammable
materials should be made fire safe to a high degree so we use flame retardant
chemicals. ATO enhances the effectiveness of flame retardants, when used as a
synergist in combination with halogenated flame retardants in plastics, rubber,
adhesives and textile back coatings.
used in many appliances such as TVs, computers, industrial electrical, circuit
boards, switches, etc. Integrated into upholstered furniture and decorative
foams, ATO is applied in clothing like hospital linen childrenâ€™s nightwear. In
transport vehicles, it plays a significant role as a flame retardant in seats,
cables and plastic structures to help strive more time for escaping in case of
enhances the effectiveness of flame retardants, when used as a synergist in
combination with halogenated flame retardants in paint industry.
the major catalyst for production of PET bottles, which is the best material
for plastic bottles. Detectable amount of antimony can be found and removed by
washing on the surface of PET bottles. ATO could migrate into food and drinks
with less toxic if the foods and beverages are consumed under normal condition.
used as a clarifying aid in certain glasses, and as additive in
semi-conductors. It is used even as a coating on certain grades of titanium
dioxide pigments. ATO is employed in manufacturing of complex inorganic colored
rutile pigments as an essential component. In addition, it functions as the
pacifier in iron bath and sinking enamel.